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  • ID:10-8219525 湘教版(2019)必修第一冊 3.2《大氣受熱過程》教案

    高中地理/湘教版(2019)/必修 第一冊/第三章 地球上的大氣/第二節 大氣受熱過程

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    • 2020-11-24
    • 下載0次
    • 40.74KB
  • ID:9-7114531 人教版高中政治必修1 6.1儲蓄存款和商業銀行(共39張PPT)

    高中思想政治/人教版(新課程標準)/(必修1)經濟生活/第二單元 生產、勞動與經營/第六課 投資理財的選擇/1 儲蓄存款和商業銀行

    (共39張PPT) 融資 從狹義上講,融資即是一個企業的資金籌集的行為與過程。 從廣義上講,融資也叫金融,就是貨幣資金的融通,當事人通過各種方式到金融市場上籌措或貸放資金的行為。 第一框 儲蓄存款和商業銀行 第六課 投資理財的選擇 如何看待這種現象? ①分析原因 ②全面評價影響(一分為二) ③暴露的問題 ④針對問題,解決的措施 ①原因:社會經濟不斷發展,收入不斷增加 ②影響:一定的儲蓄存款有利于培養合理的生活 習慣,為我國經濟建設積累資金(利); 但一味抑制消費地儲蓄存款不利于滿足人們的消費需求,不利于發揮消費對生產的積極作用(弊)。 ③暴露的問題:人們投資方式單一,投資渠道不暢。 ④解決措施:國家疏通投資渠道,鼓勵居民多種方式投資。 王老漢最近領了第一筆退休金2000元,他決定每月積累1000元下來,于是他…… (1)他把錢拿到哪里? (2)錢交給銀行老漢拿到什么? (3)老漢要用錢時又拿什么去取回?是不是原來那個數目呢? 一、儲蓄存款 1、含義 (1)我國儲蓄存款業務的對象是居民個人。 只有居民個人才能開設儲蓄存款賬戶。政府、企事業單位的錢存 入銀行一般稱為對公存款,不是儲蓄存款。 (2)活期存款并不等于活期儲蓄,只有活期存款的存款人才有權簽發支票。 (3)在我國商業銀行是吸收居民儲蓄存款最多的金融機構,有些國家的商業銀行不能吸收儲蓄存款。 (4)我國居民儲蓄存款實行實名制。 居民開辦儲蓄存款賬戶必須持有身份證; 代辦的,必須持有自己和被代辦人的身份證或戶口本。 注意以下幾點: *我國的儲蓄機構主要是什么? *儲蓄目的: 王老漢存錢是為了得到利息嗎? 人們進行儲蓄還有什么目的? 注意以下幾點: ①利息是存款本金的增值部分 ②決定存款利息多少的三個基本因素: 本金、存期、存款利息率 ③利息計算公式: 利息=本金×利息率×存款期限 2、利息 年利率(%)、 月利率(‰) 日利率(‰o)。 關系:年利率=月利率×12=日利率×360 在我國,儲蓄機構必須掛牌公告儲蓄存款利率,不得擅自變動。 利率是利息率的簡稱,是一定期限內利息與本金的比率。 利率有三種表示方法及其關系: 某儲戶于2004年1月存入20000元,定期三年,按照年息2.52%的利率計算: 3年到期后的利息總額是多少? 所得利息: 20000×2.52%×3=1512(元) ③利息計算公式: 利息=本金×利息率×存款期限 3、儲蓄存款的種類: 活期儲蓄 和 定期儲蓄 (1)未到期的定期儲蓄,儲戶本人如何提前支取? 存單、儲戶本人身份證(一單一證) (2)未到期的定期儲蓄,他人代儲戶如何提前支取? 存單、儲戶身份證、代理人的身份證或戶口本 補充儲蓄常識: 2.未到期的定期儲蓄,儲戶提前支取,銀行只支付活期存款利息。 1.未到期的定期儲蓄,如何提前支取? 4. 定、活期儲蓄的基本特征 隨時,1元起,自由 整存整取 零存整取 存本取息 整存零取 3、6、9個月,1,2,3、5年 不定 流動性強 收益高于活期儲蓄,但一般低于債券與股票 收益較低 流動性較差 以銀行信用作擔保,較安全,風險較低,但也存在通貨膨脹下存款貶值的風險 以銀行信用作擔保,較安全,風險較低,但也存在通貨膨脹下存款貶值及提前支取而損失利息的風險 種類 活期儲蓄 定期儲蓄 存取 方式 存期 流動性 收益 水平 風險 程度 你所在的地區有哪些商業銀行? 思考: 1、你知道這些標志嗎? 2、你所在的地區有沒有這些標志? 3、它們都是商業銀行嗎? 中國人民銀行: 是中華人民共和國的中央銀行,是國務院組成部門。在國務院領導下,制定和執行貨幣政策,防范和化解金融風險,維護金融穩定。 我們可不可以把錢存在中國人民銀行? 不是商業銀行 1、商業銀行的含義: 商業銀行是指經營吸收公眾存款、發放貸款、辦理結算等業務,并以利潤為主要經營目標的金融機構。 二、我國的商業銀行 了解商業銀行,注意以下幾點: ①商業銀行因依靠吸收存款為其發放貸款的主要來源,因此,在有些國家被稱為“存款銀行”。 因依靠吸收存款作為發放貸款的基本資金來源,這種短期資金來源只適用于經營短期的商業性放款業務,故稱“商業銀行”。 ②不要以為在銀行體系中除了中央銀行、政策性銀行以外,剩余的都是商業銀行,商業銀行只是銀行機構的一種。 ③我國的商業銀行以國家控股銀行為主體。我國還有民營股份制商業銀行,如民生銀行;有外資商業銀行,如東亞銀行、匯豐銀行等。 2、商業銀行的業務: 主要業務:存款業務 貸款業務 結算業務 (1)存款業務 ①含義: 注意:并非所有的存款業務都是儲蓄存款業務,儲蓄存款業務只是存款業務的一種。 ②存款的本質:是銀行對存款客戶的負債。 吸收存款的兩個主要來源: 一是企事業等單位的存款;二是城鄉居民的儲蓄存款。 ③存款業務的重要性 (2)貸款業務 ①含義: ②貸款業務的重要性 銀行利潤的計算 貸款利息收入并非銀行利潤的唯一來源 ③商業銀行的貸款種類 雙方都要誠信 (3)結算業務 上述是銀行的三類主要業務,并非全部業務 商業銀行還為我們提供債券買賣及兌付、代理買賣外匯、代理保險、提供保管箱等服務。 辦理別的業務要收取一定的服務費,也是銀行利潤的重要來源。 小結 一、儲蓄存款 1.儲蓄存款的含義、主要儲蓄機構、目的 2.利息(含義、決定因素、 利率的含義和表示方法、計算公式) 3.儲蓄存款的分類 4.定、活期儲蓄存款作為投資方式的基本特征 二、我國的商業銀行 1.商業銀行的含義 2.商業銀行的主要業務:存款業務 貸款業務 結算業務 儲蓄存款和商業銀行 達標訓練 1、下列對儲蓄存款的認識,正確的一項是( ) A、儲蓄存款作為一種投資方式具有收益高的特點 B、儲蓄存款可以隨時存取,靈活方便,很受投資者歡迎 C、利息是人們從儲蓄存款中獲得的唯一收益 D、儲蓄存款由于收益很低,所以沒有風險 2、各商業銀行都十分重視解決不良貸款問題,是因為( ) A、貸款越少,安全系數越大,商業銀行的效益越高 B、發放貸款是商業銀行的基本業務 C、貸款利息和存款利息的差額扣去費用就是商業銀行的利潤 D、貸款是商業銀行利潤的主要來源 3、我國現階段存在許多商業銀行,如中國工商銀行、中國交通銀行、廣東發展銀行等,這些銀行的共同點是( ) ①都是國有制商業銀行 ②都是以銀行利潤為主要經營目標的 ③設立的目的都是健全國家的宏觀調控體系 ④發放貸款都會本著謹慎性、安全性、真實性的原則 A、① B、②④ C、②③ D、③④ 4、下列對儲蓄存款理解不正確的是 ( ) A、儲蓄存款反映儲戶與儲蓄機構之間的信用關系 B、儲蓄存款是一種投資行為 C、儲蓄存款是指個人將屬于其所有的人民幣或者外幣存入銀行 D、居民通過儲蓄存款可以獲得利息 思維擴展: 1、居民儲蓄存款越多越好? 2、征收利息稅是否意味著國家不再鼓勵個人儲蓄?

    • 2020-03-31
    • 下載6次
    • 1627.5KB
  • ID:4-6828202 2020屆高三高考模擬卷英語02(無聽力音頻與文字材料)

    高中英語/高考專區/模擬試題

    2020屆高三高考模擬02 英語(有聽力) 測試范圍:學科內綜合,共150分,考試時間120分鐘。 第Ⅰ卷 第一部分 聽力(共兩節,滿分30分) 做題時,先將答案標在試卷上。錄音內容結束后,你將有兩分鐘的時間將試卷上的答案轉涂到答題卡上。 第一節(共5小題;每小題1.5分,滿分7.5分) 聽下面5段對話。每段對話后有一個小題,從題中所給的A、B、C三個選項中選出最佳選項,并標在試卷的相應位置。聽完每段對話后,你都有10秒鐘的時間來回答有關小題和閱讀下一小題。每段對話僅讀一遍。 1.What does the woman need to help with? A.Her jacket. B.Her boots. C.Her gloves. 2.How long does it take the woman to go home? A.Two hours. B.An hour. C.A few minutes. 3.Who might the woman be? A.A teacher. B.A parent. C.A headmaster. 4.When will the speakers begin to watch the game? A.At 6:00. B.At 8:00. C.At 10:00. 5.What does the woman probably mean at the end? A.The man looks very clean. B.The man has done a good job. C.The man needs to hurry up. 第二節(共15小題;每小題1.5分,滿分22.5分) 聽下面5段對話或獨白。每段對話或獨白后有幾個小題,從題中所給的A、B、C三個選項中選出最佳選項,并標在試卷的相應位置。聽每段對話或獨白前,你將有時間閱讀各個小題,每小題5秒鐘;聽完后,各小題將給出5秒鐘的作答時間。每段對話或獨白讀兩遍。 聽第6段材料,回答第6、7題。 6.When does the NFL play according to the man? A.On Wednesdays. B.On Saturdays. C.On Sundays. 7.What is the woman going to watch? A.A soccer game. B.A basketball game. C.A table tennis game. 聽第7段材料,回答第8、9題。 8.Where does the woman decide to go at first for her holiday this year? A.To Florida. B.To France. C.To Mexico. 9.Why does the man want the woman to go to Paris? A.There are nice beaches nearby. B.He wants to get cheap tickets. C.He had a wonderful time there last year. 聽第8段材料,回答第10至12題。 10.How 1ong has the man lived in New York? A.For three years. B.For ten years. C.Since he finished college. 11.What does the man think about his current job? A.He misses his team at Microsoft. B.He enjoys having his own company. C.He likes his co-workers. 12.What does the woman suggest at the end? A.The man should not leave Microsoft. B.The man should move to a new city. C.Happiness is the most important thing. 聽第9段材料,回答第13至16題。 13.Who is probably selling a car? A.Jim’s friend. B.The woman. C.The woman’s brother. 14.What kind of car is probably for sale? A.A Honda. B.A Ford. C.A BMW. 15.What does the man think about buying red cars? A.He isn’t really interested. B.He thinks they are attractive. C.He doesn’t care about the color. 16.What can we learn from the conversation? A.The man will look for a different car. B.The woman has a car. C.The red car costs a lot. 聽第10段材料,回答第17至20題。 17.What was Michelle probably doing when she met Al? A.Serving drinks. B.Opening bank accounts. C.Helping patients. 18.What was Al’s attitude toward Emily? A.He was in love with her. B.He liked her a lot. C.He didn’t know her very well. 19.What was Al surprised about? A.His father’s honesty. B.Michelle’s advice. C.Emily’s reaction. 20.How will the story probably end? A.Al will marry Michelle. B.Al will apologize to his parents. C.Emily will fall in love with Al. 第二部分 閱讀理解(共兩節,滿分40分) 第一節(共15小題;每小題2分,滿分30分) 閱讀下列短文,從每題所給的四個選項(A、B、C和D)中,選出最佳選項。 A Whether you choose a relaxing vacation stay or an active adventure at Yellowstone National Park or on the Yellowstone River, Flying Pig Adventure Company can accommodate your wishes. Overnight at the Ranch(牧場) Check In at 2:30 pm, Daily May through August Based at our private ranch located at an altitude of 7500 feet, bordering Yellowstone National Park, you’ll enjoy about four hours of riding over two days with an evening at the ranch—including Sue’s legendary cowboy cookout(野餐). Limited to 5 families per day. All meals included. Day One: We’ll greet you in the afternoon and provide you with directions to the best ranch in the northern Yellowstone area, called Hells A Roarin’ Ranch. Surrounded by forest service and miles of wilderness, the ranch has 2 cabins(小屋)and 3 wall tents for guests to settle in before a delightful two-hour horse riding with attractive views overlooking Yellowstone. Day Two: Breakfast served at 8:00 a.m.. By 9:00 a.m. you’ll be on top of your horse heading into the wilderness for a two-hour horse riding. You’ll be glad for photo stops in this Montana scenery—few people get to experience this wild country. When you return to the ranch, you can enjoy a picnic lunch and wander around to absorb all the ranch life before winding back down the hill to Gardiner Hotel. You will be content with all the high mountain fresh air! Choose between 2 Cabins and 3 Wall Tents Cabin Stay: $295 each for the first two people; $245 for each additional person Wall Tent Stay: $245 each for the first two people; $220 for each additional person 21.Where is the private ranch mentioned above? A.It is 7500 feet away from a famous park. B.It is right next to Yellowstone National Park. C.It is just across the Yellowstone River. D.It is close to the Adventure Company. 22.After settling in the cabins or tents, the guests can . A.enjoy four hours of riding in the ranch B.take a wonderful view of Yellowstone National Park C.drive a car in the forests and wilderness D.ask about the direction to the former ranch 23.If a family of 4 persons hopes to settle in a cabin, they will spend . A.$735 B.$1008 C.$835 D.$1080 B As a famous doctor, Sigmund Freud has problems telling his left from his right. He writes in his diary: I do not know whether it is obvious to other people which is their own or other’s right or left. In my case, I have to think which is my right and no organic feeling tells me. To make sure which is my right hand, I have to make a few writing movements quickly. Neuroscientist Eric Chudler at the University of Washington referred to a recent study where 71 of 364 (19.5 percent) college professors and 311 of 1,185 (26.2 percent) college students said that they occasionally, frequently or all of the time had difficulty when they had to quickly identify right from left. Chudler told The Washington Post that 95 percent of the 3,719 people who tried his test reported more difficulty with left/right than with up/down. In most cases, left/right confusion is rarely a big deal. But knowing your directions obviously can be critical if you’re a surgeon or a pilot. That’s why in key situations, there are plans in place to minimize(使減到最少)the chance of problems. In a health care situation, someone may write “not this leg” on a limb(肢), for example. And in the air, because distractions(分心)can cause any number of errors, pilots must avoid all non—essential conversation during the critical phases of flight. Experts say that right/left confusion doesn’t mean you’re not smart. But scientists aren’t totally sure what causes the right/left confusion. There does, however, seem to be a link between right/left confusion and brain lateralization(偏側性)—the fact that the right and left halves of the brain each control unique functions. There may, however, be an association with gender(性別). Several studies have found that women are more likely than men to say they are sometimes unable to distinguish between their right and their left. But some researchers say that’s only because women are more likely than men to admit they may have a problem. 24.According to Sigruund Freud’s diary, he . A.can’t tell the right directly B.doesn’t know which is his right hand C.is more foolish than other people D.isn’t satisfied with his organic feeling 25.Eric Chudler mentions the numbers in Paragraph 2 to tell us that . A.it is easy to tell up from down B.left/right is as important as up/down C.many people have trouble with left/right D.most people can judge left/right easily 26.Which of the following may be the important moment of flight according to the text? A.When the plane is taking off. B.When the plane is coming down. C.When the pilot is talking with others. D.When the pilot is judging the directions. 27.Where can you probably read the text? A.In a private diary. B.In a science fiction. C.In a latest newspaper. D.In a fashion magazine. C The great thing about libraries is that they house all types of books—from mysteries to biographies to dramas—all in one location. The bad thing about libraries is that they house all types of books in one location, and if it’s a location you can’t get to, you’re out of luck. Now, mobile library solutions are appearing quickly around the country to bring books to people who need them. A few years ago, when the Little Free Libraries Movement launched, more people of all ages could have access to books. Now, more than 15,000 free book stands can be found around the world, bringing books to unexpected places. But many folks simply can’t get to the places where the books are. Bookmobile buses are a good solution, but they can be expensive to fund and to operate. Books on bikes programs are popping up(出現)in areas where there is a strong bike culture, such as Seattle, or a strong need to bring books to the masses, such as in San Francisco. The Seattle Public Library’s Books on Bikes program is made up of three bike/trailer combos(復合)that librarians bring to community events. The trailers are even Wi-Fi enabled so that visitors can sign up for a library card and browse(瀏覽)the library’s card catalog on the spot. “Seattle has a really strong bike culture so we want to tap into that and provide full service library programs but do it in a way that is quick and smart.” librarian Jared Mills said in an interview. San Francisco’s program, called Bibliobicicleta, was launched in 2013 by librarian Alicia Tapia. Her trailer can hold about 100 books and attracts readers of all ages and income levels. It’s an independent, donation—based library—ike a Little Free Library, but on wheels. When asked why she would launch a free library on a bike, Tapia answers, “Why not? Bikes are cool, and can go anywhere.” 28.According to the writer, the traditional libraries . A.are popular among the readers B.are large enough to hold any book C.are not very convenient to the readers D.can bring books to people who need them 29.Which of the following may be the disadvantage of the bookmobile buses? A.They are full of many travelers. B.They cost a large amount of money. C.They hold the limited number of books. D.They bring books to unexpected places. 30.The writer mentions Seattle to tell us that . A.bikes are popular in it B.visitors can use free Wi-Fi in it C.it is the same as the city of San Francisco D.the library card is useful to the visitors 31.Tapia’s answer suggests that she . A.enjoys showing off by bike B.shows impatience to the readers C.is eager to make the readers happy D.thinks libraries on bikes are practical D Despite the countless differences between people’s characters and careers, or their likes and their dislikes, it seems that we are all connected in this wonderful life by one thing: namely, seeking happiness. Happiness means, naturally, different things to different people. For myself, happiness is synonymous(同義的)with horse riding, Cadbury’s Creme Eggs and spending time with my friends. Some people are at their happiest at home, while others find their happiness through travelling far-off foreign lands. Happiness can be as simple as a surprise bunch of fresh flowers or a really strong coffee, just when you need it most. Sometimes, happiness comes from spending time with loved ones; for others, it’s having a well-earned quiet night at home, with nothing but a comfortable bed for company. Since it comes in so many shapes and sizes, it’s sometimes easy to take happiness for granted. It is especially true if it’s been “one of those days”. Maybe you overslept, missed the bus and had to walk to school in the rain, only to be told that you were late. Or perhaps, because of work, you had to cancel plans with friends, despite looking forward to seeing them for ages. Forgotten keys, delayed flights, an argument with your parents, illness or injury... all very frustrating, and understandably guaranteed to make you feel unhappy. Luckily, there are a few simple, scientifically proven ways to make the glass seem half-full again. To start with, things like trying out cycling or walking instead of driving to work and listening to music are great moodboosters(情緒助推器). Volunteering and getting involved with a charity are two ways in which you can become happier through helping others. Last, but certainly not least, try hugging your way to happiness; it’s been suggested that we humans need a minimum(最少的)of five hugs a day. If you’ve been having a bad day, there’s nothing better than a good old bear-hug. 32.What would be the main idea of Paragraph 2? A.Happiness comes from different things. B.Fresh flowers can give you a surprise. C.Some people enjoy themselves at home. D.It is pleasant to spend time with close friends. 33.The underlined part “one of those days” may refer to a day when . A.it is easy to be happy B.you go to work on time C.you have a coffee at home D.you tend to be sad at your life 34.To tell us that people are easy to take happiness for granted, the writer . A.performs an experiment B.provides some examples C.tells an interesting story D.brings up some problems 35.Where does the passage come from? A.In a scientific report. B.In an advertisement. C.In a guidebook. D.In a novel. 第二節(共5小題;每小題2分,滿分10分) 根據短文內容,從短文后的選項中選出能填入空白處的最佳選項。選項中有兩項為多余選項。 Amazing Benefits of Listening to Music If you love listening to music, you’re good company. 36. . ★Music makes you happier. When you listen to music, your brain releases a special matter. It biologically causes listeners to feel emotions like happiness, excitement and joy. So the next time you need an emotional increase, listen to your favorite tunes for 15 minutes. ★37. . Listening to music you enjoy decreases levels of the stress in your body. This is an important finding since stress causes many illnesses and diseases. To stay calm and healthy during a stressful day, turn on the radio. ★Music helps you sleep better. A study showed that students listening to classical music for 45 minutes slept better than students who did nothing. If you’re having trouble sleeping, try listening to a little Bach or Mozart before bedtime. ★38. . Softening the lighting and music can lead people to consume fewer calories and enjoy their meals more. If you’re looking for ways to reduce your appetite, try dimming the lights and listening to soft music the next time you sit down for a meal. ★Music strengthens learning and memory. Researchers discovered that music can help you learn and remember information that you have forgotten better. 39. . Memorize these results. You now have a strategy to study more effectively for your next test. ★Music raises IQ and school performance. Research shows that taking music lessons predicts higher school performance and IQ in young children. 40. . A.Music helps you eat less. B.Music lowers stress and improves health. C.Participants who were musicians learned better with light music. D.Musical training can help raise our IQs and even keep us sharp at old age. E.Here are amazing scientifically-proven benefits of being hooked on music. F.Recent research shows that listening to music improves our mental well-being. G.To help your children achieve academic excellence, encourage them to sing or learn to play an instrument. 第三部分 英語知識運用(共兩節,滿分45分) 第一節 完形填空(共20小題;每小題1.5分,滿分30分) 閱讀下面短文,從短文后各題所給的四個選項(A、B、C和D)中,選出可以填入空白處的最佳選項。 You probably know that doing good makes you feel good, whether it’s volunteer work or something for a friend. I have 41 someone else’s good deed. It also gives me a 42 attitude, especially a random act of kindness from a 43 . That’s been my experience anyway. My family and friends have done more than I can 44 for me, and I am very 45 . But someone I don’t even know does 46 nice for me? It’s really 47 . And that’s what makes your life wonderful. Take what happened to me Wednesday night. I 48 the office at 7:10, almost an hour later than I’d planned, and I was 49 that I would only have time for a short workout. Then I walked out of our 50 onto 34th Street and got hit in the face with little ice. And 51 , I had no umbrella. I made my way over to Park Avenue and waited there 52 for the hailstones(冰雹)hitting off my unprotected head. Suddenly a 53 came from my left. “Hey, do you need an umbrella?” I 54 back and saw a guy in his mid-20s, rocking the fashionable jacket, skinny jeans, funky glasses. But he clearly had a kind attitude because he was already 55 his umbrella with me. “That’s sweet of you,” I said, “ 56 I’m okay. I’m just going to the gym across the street.” “Then I’ll walk you there,” he said. He 57 me to the door of my gym, shielding(遮蔽)me from the hail all the way. He left with his 58 and my thanks. I watched him 59 in the night, my mood light and hopeful again. Why let little annoyances get to me when there’s a 60 world out there with people like my umbrella guy in it? 41.A.put forward B.benefited from C.concentrated on D.accounted for 42.A.negative B.particular C.common D.positive 43.A.friend B.relative C.stranger D.colleague 44.A.describe B.collect C.recite D.accept 45.A.hopeful B.cheerful C.powerful D.grateful 46.A.anything B.nothing C.something D.everything 47.A.unsettled B.unexpected C.unlimited D.untouched 48.A.left B.reached C.searched D.cleaned 49.A.surprised B.puzzled C.pleased D.worried 50.A.building B.home C.hospital D.library 51.A.at first B.for example C.as usual D.in time 52.A.exactly B.miserably C.seriously D.generally 53.A.noise B.sound C.whisper D.voice 54.A.stopped B.jumped C.turned D.arrived 55.A.sharing B.covering C.spreading D.holding 56.A.and B.but C.so D.or 57.A.followed B.carried C.pushed D.accompanied 58.A.reward B.permit C.umbrella D.eraser 59.A.disappear B.stand C.remain D.move 60.A.terrible B.wonderful C.rainy D.cloudy 第II卷 第三部分 英語知識運用(共兩節,滿分45分) 第二節(共10小題;每小題1.5分,滿分15分) 閱讀下面材料,在空白處填入適當的內容(1個單詞)或括號內單詞的正確形式。 Save the Earth Without the Earth we have nowhere to live, along with many other organisms. If we don’t save the Earth 61. (active) now, our children or grandchildren might not be able to see it for long. Our atmosphere 62. (weaken) and we have to do something about it quickly. We could plant more 63. (tree) to create more oxygen to keep the bad air away from the atmosphere, 64. we could just stop cutting down the rainforest. We are living and we need the space but we aren’t the only species on this earth. 65. (save) the rainforest is not only good for the atmosphere but also good for the many different species that the earth provides for 66. (we). We could try to get as many people as possible to switch to other energy using 67. (little) mineral fuels for energy and relying more on solar and wind energy 68. fossil fuels are destroying our earth and we need 69. (limit) the use of it. Recycling is one of the simplest ways 70. helps our precious planet. Everyone can help. All they have to do is follow three simple rules: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle! The world is precious and we need to keep it that way. 第四部分 寫作(共兩節;滿分35分) 第一節 短文改錯(共10小題;每小題1分,滿分10分) 假定英語課上老師要求同桌之間交換修改作文,請你修改你同桌寫的以下作文。文中共有10處語言錯誤,每句中最多有兩處。每處錯誤僅涉及一個單詞的增加、刪除或修改。 增加:在缺詞處加一個漏字符號(),并在其下面寫出該加的詞。 刪除:把多余的詞用斜線(\)劃掉。 修改:在錯的詞下畫一橫線,并在該詞下面寫出修改后的詞。 注意:1.每處錯誤及其修改均僅限一詞; 2.只允許修改10處,多者(從第11處起)不計分。 When Zhang Wei decided to take part in the 3,000-meter race, everyone is very surprised. One of his classmate said he was not strong enough run 3,000 meters. And he said he was determined to finish it. During the race, each step seemed difficulty. Suddenly he fell, thus break his glasses and losing his chance of winning. But he didn’t give up. He stood up, put on his broken glasses and keep on running. “Come on! You can not do it!” Everyone on the sports field was cheering for her. Although he was a last one to cross the finishing line, he won the Courage Cup. 笫二節 書面表達(滿分25分) 教師節前夕,你和同學們準備通過錄制節目為班級老師慶祝教師節。請根據以下提示,以“A Special Teachers’ Day”為題,為校刊上的英語角欄目寫一篇短文,記述你們的慶祝過程。 內容要點:1.活動策劃;2.錄制過程;3.教師的感受。 注意:1.詞數100左右;2.短文的開頭已給出,不計入總詞數。 A Special Teachers’ Day Never shall I forget the special Teachers’ Day. 2020屆模擬02英語答案與解析 第一部分 聽力 1~5.【答案】BCACB 6~10.【答案】CAABB 11~15.【答案】CCABA 16~20.【答案】BABCA 第二部分 閱讀理解 第一節 A篇【解題導語】黃石公園(Yellowstone National Park)是美國第一個國家公園,是不容錯過的景點。文章介紹了黃石公園的兩日游活動。 21.【答案】B【解析】細節理解題。根據文中的Based at our private ranch located at an altitude of 7500 feet, bordering Yellowstone National Park可知,這個私人牧場海拔7500英尺,毗鄰黃石公園,故選B。 22.【答案】B【解析】細節理解題。根據文中的before a delightful two-hour horse riding with attractive views overlooking Yellowstone可知,在住下之后,游客可以騎馬,騎馬的同時可以俯瞰黃石公園的美景,故選B。 23.【答案】D【解析】數字計算題。根據文中的Cabin Stay: $295 each for the first two people和$245 for each additional person可知,如果是四個人住在cabin里面,應該是: $295×2 + $245×2=$1080,故選D。 B篇【解題導語】本文以一位醫生的日記為話題切入點,并通過最近的一些研究,介紹了許多人在區分左右方面有一定的困難。在作者看來清楚的區分左右有時候十分重要。 24.【答案】A【解析】細節理解題。根據第一段末句To make sure which is my right hand, I have to make a few writing movements quickly可知,該醫生不能直接判斷右邊。 25.【答案】C【解析】推理判斷題。該段提供了一系列數字和比例,根據其中的…they occasionally, frequently or all of the time had difficulty when they had to quickly identify right from left可以推知,許多人對區分左右有一定的困難。 26.【答案】D【解析】推理判斷題。第三段介紹了在有些情況下區分左右的重要性,由此可以推知,該段提到的And in the air, because distractions can cause any number of errors, pilots must avoid all non-essential conversation during the critical phases of flight說明,需要判斷方向的時段很重要,不容分心。 27.【答案】C【解析】推理判斷題。本文話題是有關區分左右的困惑,為此作者引用了科學家們最新的研究成果,由此可以推知,讀者應該在最新的報紙上可以閱讀到這篇文章。 C篇【解題導語】本文是說明文。文章介紹了新型的自行車圖書館。和傳統的圖書館相比,自行車圖書館靈活機動且成本低廉,對讀者也很有吸引力。 28.【答案】C【解析】推理判斷題。根據第一段中的The bad thing about libraries is that they house all types of books in one location, and if it’s a location you can’t get to, you’re out of luck可以推知,傳統的圖書館的地理位置對一些讀者來說并不方便。 29.【答案】B【解析】細節理解題。根據第二段最后的Bookmobile buses are a good solution, but they can be expensive to fund and to operate可知,流動汽車圖書館的缺點是成本很高。 30.【答案】A【解析】推理判斷題。根據第三段第一句中的Books on bikes programs are popping up in areas where there is a strong bike culture, such as Seattle可以推知,在西雅圖,自行車很流行。 31.【答案】D【解析】推理判斷題。根據最后一段中Tapia的回答可以推知,她認為自行車圖書館非常有實用價值。 D篇【解題導語】本文是議論文。作者結合自己的生活體驗,分析了幸福的根源并介紹了讓自己幸福快樂的各種方法,還舉例說明人們不快樂的原因。 32.【答案】A【解析】段意歸納題。該段主要講到人們感到幸福的原因各種各樣,故A項的意思和題意相符。 33.【答案】D【解析】詞義猜測題。根據該段第一句可知,人們容易對幸福想當然,再結合下文談到的一些情況可以推知,此處指“對生活感到傷心的一天”。 34.【答案】B【解析】推理判斷題。文章第三段第一句Since it comes in so many shapes and sizes, it’s sometimes easy to take happiness for granted.提到人們對幸福想當然,下面列舉了一系列例子,故B項為正確答案。 35.【答案】A【解析】推理判斷題。根據句子的大意,作者主要就“追求幸福”的話題進行了探討,同時也用了一些科學研究的方式來論證這個問題,所以文章應該出現在“一篇科學報告”中。故選A。而B、C、D分別為“在廣告中、在旅行指南中、在一篇小說中”,均不符合。 第二節 【解題導語】音樂不僅能陶冶情操還有益身心健康。心情煩躁的時候,聽聽音樂能讓我們靜下心來;郁悶的時候,聽些令人開心的音樂能夠讓心情變好。本文介紹了聽音樂給人們帶來的好處。 36.【答案】E【解析】選項E在此處起到了承上啟下的作用,符合題意。 37.【答案】B【解析】段落中的關鍵信息decreases levels of the stress與B項中的lowers stress相吻合,故選B項。 38.【答案】A【解析】選項A意為“音樂幫助你少吃”,較好地體現了段落中consume fewer calories和reduce your appetite等關鍵信息所表達的意義。 39.【答案】C【解析】空白處后面句子中的results與空白處前面句子中的can help you learn and remember information that you have forgotten better和選項E中Participants who were musicians learned better with light music均有正向關聯,都有力地說明了段落主題。 40.【答案】G【解析】選項G中的關鍵信息achieve academic excellence與段落標題中的school performance以及空白處前的school performance吻合。 第三部分 英語知識運用 第一節 完形填空 【解題導語】作者去健身房的途中遇上天下冰雹,一位小伙子撐傘把其送到目的地,對此作者感觸很深:來自別人的幫助會讓你更加積極、樂觀、幸福和快樂。 41.【答案】B【解析】根據首句You probably know that doing good makes you feel good可知,作者受益于(benefited from)別人的幫助。 42.【答案】D【解析】別人對你所做的好事當然會激起你積極的(positive)態度,這和首句中的feel good的語境一致。 43.【答案】C【解析】根據第二段中的But someone I don’t even know does something nice for me?可知,這里指特別是來自陌生人(stranger)的善意行為。 44.【答案】A【解析】根據生活常識,結合作者對做好事的經歷和看法,可知作者認為家人和朋友為作者所做的事情比作者所能夠描述的(describe)還要多。 45.【答案】D【解析】上句提到家人和朋友為作者所做的事情,故此處作者表示很感激(grateful)。 46.【答案】C【解析】文章第三段之后講述了作者自身的經歷,此處說明不認識的人也會為作者做一些事情(something)。不可能什么都能幫助別人去做,故A和D兩項與題意不符。 47.【答案】B【解析】既然是不認識的人的幫助,所以確實是出乎意料的(unexpected)。 48.【答案】A【解析】上文中提到Wednesday night,由此可知此處指作者下班(left)。 49.【答案】D【解析】根據從句的意思,作者由于下班晚了,所以擔心(worried)健身的時間不多了。 50.【答案】A【解析】上文提到下班,并要去健身,由此可知這里作者是走出辦公樓(building)。 51.【答案】C【解析】像往常一樣(as usual),作者沒有帶傘。 52.【答案】B【解析】作者要去健身,外面又下著冰雹,所以作者的心情并不好,所以此處應是作者傷心地或者悲慘地(miserably)等候著。 53.【答案】D【解析】聯系下文引號內的語言,可知從左邊傳來一個聲音(voice)。noise的意思是“噪音”;sound泛指一切“聲音”;whisper的意思是“耳語”。 54.【答案】C【解析】分析情節的發展可知,作者聽到說話的聲音,然后轉過身(turned)。 55.【答案】A【解析】根據上文中小伙子所說的“Hey, do you need an umbrella?”,很明顯他要和作者共用(sharing)同一把傘。 56.【答案】B【解析】前面作者夸獎了對方給予的善意,但是又說自己“很好、沒什么”,上下文是轉折關系, 57.【答案】D【解析】根據前面的Then I’ll walk you there可知,他陪伴(accompanied)作者去體育館門口。 58.【答案】C【解析】小伙子和作者一起走,是想用傘幫助作者擋冰雹,所以走的時候當然是帶著傘(umbrella)。 59.【答案】A【解析】聯系上文中的He left with his umbrella and my thanks,可知,這里是指作者看著他在夜幕中消失(disappear)了。 60.【答案】B【解析】在作者看來,有像雨傘青年這樣的人們,所以外面的世界一定是美好的(wonderful)。 第二節 【解題導語】本文是一篇說明文。主要介紹了現在人類拯救地球的方法。 61.【答案】actively【解析】考查副詞。修飾前面的動詞save,使用副詞作狀語。 62.【答案】is weakening【解析】考查時態。此處指地球的大氣層正在惡化,強調一個正在進行的動作。 63.【答案】trees【解析】考查名詞。根據前面的more可知,后面的名詞應該使用復數形式。 64.【答案】or【解析】考查連詞。這里表示選擇,故填or。 65.【答案】Saving【解析】考查動名詞。句子缺少主語,故用動名詞作主語,表示一個抽象動作。考生雖然知道這里缺少主語,但是可能會想到使用不定式,而不定式作主語的時候,表示一個具體的動作。 66.【答案】us【解析】考查代詞。根據意思,地球給我們提供了很多不同的物種。介詞for后要用代詞賓格。 67.【答案】less【解析】考查形容詞比較級。與后面的more進行對比,指我們可以少使用化石燃料。 68.【答案】because【解析】考查原因狀語從句。根據意思,這里表示原因,指那些化石燃料正在摧毀我們的地球。 69.【答案】to limit【解析】考查不定式。結合前面的need可知,后面使用不定式作賓語。 70.【答案】that【解析】考查關系代詞。定語從句中缺少主語,判斷用關系代詞,而先行詞前有最高級修飾,故填that。 第四部分 寫作 第一節 短文改錯 When Zhang Wei decided to take part in the 3,000-meter race, everyone is very surprised. was One of his classmate said he was not strong enoughrun 3,000 meters. And he said he was to Classmates to But finish it. During the race, each step seemed difficulty. Suddenly he fell, thus break his glasses difficult breaking and losing his chance of winning. But he didn’t give up. He stood up, put on his broken glasses and keep on running. “Come on! You can not do it!” Everyone on the sports field was cheering kept for her. Although he was a last one to cross the finishing line, he won the Courage Cup. him the 第二節 書面表達 One possible version: A Special Teachers’ Day Never shall I forget the special Teachers’ Day. It was all started several days before Teachers’ Day. With Teachers’ Day around the corner, some of my classmates and I had a group meeting in order to decide how to celebrate it. My classmate came up with the idea of making a short video. Hardly had we got the idea when we made our way outside and made it in front of the school entrance. What impressed me most was that on the evening before Teachers’ Day, I took great trouble to edit the video on my computer and added some music. When we eventually showed everybody the video on Teachers’ Day, our teacher was so deeply moved that he almost cried. In a flash, a wave of warmth spread across every corner of our classroom. 英語(有聽力)新課標模擬02 第1頁

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  • ID:4-6828169 2020屆高三高考模擬卷英語01(無聽力音頻與文字材料)

    高中英語/高考專區/模擬試題

    2020屆高三高考模擬試卷01 英語(有聽力) 測試范圍:學科內綜合,共150分,考試時間120分鐘。 第Ⅰ卷 第一部分 聽力(共兩節,滿分30分) 做題時,先將答案標在試卷上。錄音內容結束后,你將有兩分鐘的時間將試卷上的答案轉涂到答題卡上。 第一節(共5小題;每小題1.5分,滿分7.5分) 聽下面5段對話。每段對話后有一個小題,從題中所給的A、B、C三個選項中選出最佳選項,并標在試卷的相應位置。聽完每段對話后,你都有10秒鐘的時間來回答有關小題和閱讀下一小題。每段對話僅讀一遍。 1.What time is the man’s appointment? A.2:15 p.m. B.2:30 p.m. C.2:45 p.m. 2.What does the man mean? A.He likes the woman’s idea. B.The deal sounds impossible. C.He has some questions to ask. 3.What did the man take out of the cupboard? A.A cake. B.Bowls. C.Some sugar. 4.What are the speakers talking about? A.Sightseeing. B.Weather. C.Fishing. 5.What is the relationship between the speakers? A.Boss and secretary. B.Salesgirl and customer. C.Doctor and patient. 第二節(共15小題;每小題1.5分,滿分22.5分) 聽下面5段對話或獨白。每段對話或獨白后有幾個小題,從題中所給的A、B、C三個選項中選出最佳選項,并標在試卷的相應位置。聽每段對話或獨白前,你將有時間閱讀各個小題,每小題5秒鐘;聽完后,各小題將給出5秒鐘的作答時間。每段對話或獨白讀兩遍。 聽第6段材料,回答第6、7題。 6.What is the girl likely to be? A.A waitress. B.A student. C.A teacher. 7.What does the man think of having breakfast? A.Very Important. B.Convenient. C.Interesting. 聽第7段材料,回答第8、9題。 8.How many songs is the woman’s iPod supposed to hold? A.1000. B.300. C.10. 9.What is wrong with the iPod? A.It is the wrong size. B.It doesn’t play any songs. C.It plays a small number of songs. 聽第8段材料,回答第10至12題。 10.What helps the woman do her job? A.Studying the movement of hands. B.Working with a team of experts. C.Making many copies of documents. 11.What does the man think of the woman’s job? A.It’s not very common. B.It’s not that interesting. C.It’s not hard to do. 12.How long did the woman study to prepare for the job? A.Six months. B.Eight months. C.Eighteen months. 聽第9段材料,回答第13至16題。 13.What does the woman suggest? A.Taking fewer classes. B.Making time for exercise. C.Spending more time with his friends. 14.What’s wrong with the man? A.He feels stressed out. B.He doesn’t like his school. C.He doesn’t get along well with his roommates. 15.How many classes is the man taking? A.Four. B.Five. C.Six. 16.What are the man’s friends like? A.They are very kind. B.They are quite smart. C.They worry a lot about school. 聽第10段材料,回答第17至20題。 17.What’s the theme for today? A.Introducing some famous writers. B.Discussing the issue for environment protection. C.Discussing the growth of world’s economy. 18.What is Jessica Fleming’s new book about? A.The economic effects of natural disasters. B.How people are affecting the oceans. C.Why trees are important to the plant. 19.What does the speaker like most about Prof. Thomas’s book? A.It is easy to understand. B.It includes many interesting interviews. C.It has even more details than his last book. 20.What suggestions will Prof. Thomas give next? A.How to talk with whales. B.How to protect the underwater environment. C.What the government should do about oil spills. 第二部分 閱讀理解(共兩節,滿分40分) 第一節(共15小題;每小題2分,滿分30分) 閱讀下列短文,從每題所給的四個選項(A、B、C和D)中,選出最佳選項。 A This summer’s top four European music festivals LONDON LOVEBOX Where: Victoria Park When: July 15-16 No other country does a festival like the British and few festivals are as fun as Lovebox in Hackney’s Victoria Park. Dancing, disco balls, and more dancing. Don’t miss local acts Stormzy, Kano and Katy B who represent our homegrown talent. Good food is at the heart of Lovebox: go on an empty stomach to taste pizza from Voodoo Ray’s, hamburgers from Le Bun and cheese sandwiches from The Cheese Truck. BUDAPEST SZIGET Where: Obudai-sziget When: 10-17 August On an island in the middle of the Danube is one of Europe’s most atmospheric festivals. 40,000 people crowd into 266-acres(英畝)of woodland for a week-long party. This year’s big-name acts will hold you there all day or you could check out the riverside beach, or the artworks there. PARIS ROCK EN SEINE Where: Domaine National de Saint-Cloud When: August 26-28 Rock and roll and Paris aren’t typical partners but Rock en Seine puts them together with excitement. As this is a great event where there’s even an art exhibition. All this plus wonderful views of the Parisian skyline(地平線)and Marie Antoinette’s rose garden. BERLIN LOLLAPALOOZA Where: Treptower Park When: Sept 10-11 Held in Treptower Park in the east of Berlin, 60,000 mostly local people come for the rock music and the friendly atmosphere—kids are just as welcome as grown-ups. Take a break from the music to seek out the rose garden. Keep it going all night in some of Berlin’s coolest clubs in neighbouring Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. 21.Which of the following festivals lasts the longest? A.Lollapalooza in Berlin. B.Rock en Seine in Paris. C.Lovebox in London. D.Sziget in Budapest. 22.What is the characteristic of the Lollapalooza music festival? A.Some of its performers are homegrown talents. B.It combines rock’n’roll with an art exhibition. C.Many works of art are used for decoration. D.Most of the people attending it are locals. 23.Where can you go if you’re particularly interested in rock music? A.Berlin and Paris. B.London and Paris. C.Budapest and Berlin. D.London and Budapest. B When I was a child, I dreamed of becoming many things. Sometimes, I wished I was an astronaut going up into space, finding new planets and jumping around in a cool space suit. Other times, I imagined being a cowboy in the Wild West, wearing stylish cowboy boots. On other occasions, I pretended to be a famous footballer, using my skills to score lots of goals for my team. Looking back, I realize that imagination is a wonderful thing. I was able to create entire environments and scenarios in my head, using nothing more than my brain, and to be able to adapt things in my everyday surroundings to fit the specific story of the day. Growing up with siblings(兄弟姐妹)also helped, as it meant that even bigger stories could be created, combining our ideas and putting our thoughts into action. It also allowed for more varieties in the stories, as sometimes I could be the hero while on other occasions, I would be the bad guy. One of my all-time favorite memories as a kid was playing in my back garden. I played the role of Indiana Jones, which cleaned up at the cinema at that time, with my younger sister as my assistant and my brother as a bad person. We used everything in our garden, from the path to the fence, as part of the storyline to create obstacles that needed to be overcome, and we would?keep the story going for hours! My personal favorite game was Indiana Jones and the Stolen Easter Eggs, where my brother hid small chocolate eggs around the garden and my sister and I had to find them by answering questions or solving a puzzle. It was difficult, but eventually we found all the eggs and shared them together. Since then, I have seen many great things and met many amazing people. The elements of fun and varieties of my creative imaginations are what I try to bring into every part of my positive life. So I can enjoy sharing with and hearing about other people’s stories, too. 24.What do we know about the author from his childhood? A.He enjoyed living a life full of freedom. B.He was longing to experience adventurous things. C.He was always imagining a bright life for his future. D.He had a clear picture of what he would do after growing up. 25.Which of the following can best replace the underlined word “scenarios” in Paragraph 2? A.experiences B.situations C.positions D.excuses 26.From the passage, we know that Indiana Jones was . A.an astronaut B.a famous footballer C.a hot film D.a very popular book 27.What would be the best title for the passage? A.My Creative Imagination. B.My Childhood. C.My Positive Life Today. D.My Pride in Myself. C When it comes to making healthy lifestyle changes, which should come first — changing your diet or becoming more physically active? Previous studies suggested that providing people with too much information about nutrition and physical activity at once tends to be discouraging. That has led to the popularity of advising people to make changes gradually, and set smaller goals. So the scientists divided 200 inactive participants who were age 45 or older into four groups. One group was instructed about making diet and fitness changes at the same time, the second group was taught about diet changes first, then fitness changes four months later, the third group changed their exercise habits first and made changes in their eating habits four months later, and the final, control group was not instructed about either diet or fitness changes but about how to manage their stress. The researchers tracked the groups for a full year. Compared to the control group, the three intervention(干預)groups made healthy changes in their diet. Those who changed their fitness habits first significantly increased the amount of exercise they received daily compared to the other groups after four months. However, at the end of the year, the group that changed both diet and exercise at the same time was the only one that met the nationally recommended targets for both exercise and nutrition levels, while those who worked on improving their nutrition first were unable to meet the recommended levels of fitness after a year. The researchers suspect that changes to diet are easier to make than changes to physical activity. The findings show, however, that pairing diet and exercise changes may help to overcome some of the barriers people face in adding more physical activity into their lives. If folks change diet and exercise orderly, the scientists say, they may end up placing more importance on the first set of behavior changes and feel less pressured to address the second set. 28.The advice mentioned in the second paragraph seemed . A.popular B.dngerous C.scientific D.unsatisfactory 29.Which group made progress earlier than other groups in increasing the amount of daily exercise? A.The first group. B.The second group. C.The third group. D.The control group. 30.The reason why those improving their nutrition first failed to meet the levels of fitness after a year might be that . A.they might be very lazy B.they wouldn’t like to change their behavior C.it is much harder to change physical activity D.they might put on weight before changing their physical activity 31.Which of the following does the author probably approve of? A.Pairing diet and exercise changes. B.Becoming more physically active first. C.Changing diet and exercise following a fixed order. D.Changing diet first and placing more importance on it. D Curiosity is what drives us to keep learning, keep trying, keep pushing forward. But how does one generate(產生)curiosity, in oneself or others? George Loewenstein, a professor of psychology at Carnegie Mellon University, offered an answer in the classic1994 paper, “The Psychology of Curiosity.” Curiosity arises, Loewenstein wrote, “when attention becomes focused on a gap in one's knowledge. Such information gaps produce the feeling of deprivation(匱乏)labeled curiosity. The curious individual is motivated to obtain the missing information to reduce the feeling of deprivation.” Loewenstein's theory helps explain why curiosity is such a force: it's not only a mental state but also an emotion, a powerful feeling that drives us forward. Scientist Daniel Willingham notes that teachers are often “so eager to get to the answer that we do not devote enough time to developing the question.” Yet it's the question that stimulates(刺激)curiosity; being told an answer stops curiosity before it can even get going. In his 1994 paper, George Loewenstein noted that curiosity requires some basic knowledge. We're not curious about something we know absolutely nothing about. But as soon as we know even a little bit, our curiosity is aroused and we want to learn more. In fact, research shows that curiosity increases with knowledge: the more we know, the more we want to know. To get this process started, Loewenstein suggests, take steps with some interesting but incomplete information. Language teachers have long used communication in exercises that open an information gap and then require learners to communicate with each other in order to fill it. For example, one student might be given a series of pictures for the beginning of the story, while the student's partner is given a series of pictures showing how that same story ends. Only by speaking with each other (in the foreign language they are learning, of course) can the students fill in each others' information gaps. 32.When one notices a gap in his knowledge, he . A.desires to fill it B.tends to be afraid C.might get tired and sad D.will become focused on his learning 33.What does Daniel Willingham imply in the article? A.Answers are more important than questions. B.Teachers should be eager to get to the answer. C.Teachers know how to stimulate students’ curiosity. D.Teachers are partly to blame for students’ hating school. 34.According to George Loewenstein’s paper, curiosity about something occurs only when you . A.have read a lot of books B.know little about something C.have some related information D.are given incomplete information 35.What is the article mainly about? A.Why students hate school. B.Why curiosity is important. C.How to stimulate curiosity. D.What makes people hungry for knowledge. 第二節(共5小題;每小題2分,滿分10分) 根據短文內容,從短文后的選項中選出能填入空白處的最佳選項。選項中有兩項為多余選項。 An obvious reason for learning a new language is to be able to communicate with the people who speak it. 36. People in every country prefer it when tourists make an effort to speak the local language, even if all you can say in it is “hello” and “please”. Cultural understanding Speaking a new language helps you to get to know another people and culture, as language and culture go hand in hand. 37. It shows new ways of looking at the world. In addition, when you speak another language, you can enjoy literature, film, and music in the original language. It is extremely difficult for a translation to be a perfect replica(復制品)of the original. 38. Business and careers 39. Schools and employers tend to prefer candidates who speak one or more foreign languages. Even though English is widely spoken in much of the world, the fact is that the global economy depends on communication. When dealing with France, for example, someone who speaks French will have an obvious advantage over someone who doesn’t. Language improvement Learning another language can help you to understand your own. Many languages have contributed to the development of English. 40. Also, in learning how another language differs from your own, you will increase your understanding of your own language. For many people, language is innate(與生俱來的)—we know how to say something, but we don’t necessarily know why we say it that way. Learning another language can change that. A.Language is helpful in making foreign friends. B.The best way is to read what the author actually wrote. C.Learning another language opens one’s mind to new ideas. D.Your trip will be comfortable if you speak the local language. E.Speaking more than one language will increase your market ability. F.It is true that mastering another foreign language is very beneficial. G.Learning those will teach you where words and even grammatical structures are from. 第三部分 英語知識運用(共兩節,滿分45分) 第一節 完形填空(共20小題;每小題1.5分,滿分30分) 閱讀下面短文,從短文后各題所給的四個選項(A、B、C和D)中,選出可以填入空白處的最佳選項。 One day an old woman’s youngest son went to find work in the city but had no luck. On his way home, he saw a dead 41 .He picked it up and took it back to his mother. But knowing that the snake would not make a good 42 for them all, she threw it onto the 43 . On that same day, when the queen was having a 44 in a beautiful lake, her expensive 45 was taken away by an eagle. After flying for a while, the eagle 46 the dead snake on the roof. She 47 the necklace there and 48 the dead snake as supper. The next day, the old woman 49 the shining necklace. She understood that this was the queen’s 50 necklace and that the queen 51 wanted it back. So At Diwali festival(排燈節), she went to the queen’s palace. 52 the queen saw her necklace, she was very 53 and promised to give the old woman a large amount of money. But the old woman 54 . Instead she requested that on the night of Diwali only her household be allowed to 55 oil lamps. The queen was surprised but was so 56 for her help that she agreed. At midnight, the Goddess of Wealth came for her yearly visit. She was 57 to see darkness everywhere in the kingdom. Then she saw 58 lights shining from the old woman’s house and quickly 59 her way straight there and knocked on the door and stayed in her house forever so that the old woman’s family lived 60 prosperity(繁榮)and happiness. 41.A.body B.eagle C.snake D.woman 42.A.meal B.fame C.decision D.deal 43.A.table B.roof C.street D.rock 44.A.rest B.bath C.ride D.sleep 45.A.treasure B.dress C.ring D.necklace 46.A.saw B.missed C.needed D.remembered 47.A.enjoyed B.buried C.left D.destroyed 48.A.woke up B.put aside C.looked for D.took away 49.A.spotted B.wore C.caught D.tested 50.A.stolen B.hidden C.broken D.deserted 51.A.hardly B.never C.badly D.quickly 52.A.Unless B.When C.While D.Although 53.A.sad B.proud C.happy D.careless 54.A.left B.declined C.defeated D.accepted 55.A.sell B.exhibit C.make D.light 56.A.angry B.general C.grateful D.wealthy 57.A.delighted B.satisfied C.shocked D.disappointed 58.A.beautiful B.strange C.weak D.electric 59.A.pushed B.made C.felt D.fought 60.A.in B.on C.without D.by 第II卷 第三部分 英語知識運用(共兩節,滿分45分) 第二節(共10小題;每小題1.5分,滿分15分) 閱讀下面材料,在空白處填入適當的內容(1個單詞)或括號內單詞的正確形式。 I worked in a professional training company. My job was 61. (interview) as many people as possible and fill at least 30 questionnaires within 6 hours. The lunch was well fast, the boss said we had only 15 minutes 62. lunch. But on a Saturday morning, I was the target of a 63. (beauty) and selfless act of a guy. Not all people wanted to respond to the questionnaire and on Saturdays it was much 64. (hard) to get support from people. I was in a square near a bus station, 65. was the busiest place in town on Saturdays. I saw him 66. (sit) on the bench, a simple guy. I 67. (speak) to him and he agreed to answer to my questionary. 68. (sudden) he took a package and offered me an apple. I was quite 69. (surprise), but he insisted so I ended up giving in and I thanked him. He saw that I worked hard and he decided to give me a gift, 70. simple gift but that was from his heart. 第四部分 寫作(共兩節;滿分35分) 第一節 短文改錯(共10小題;每小題1分,滿分10分) 假定英語課上老師要求同桌之間交換修改作文,請你修改你同桌寫的以下作文。文中共有10處語言錯誤,每句中最多有兩處。每處錯誤僅涉及一個單詞的增加、刪除或修改。 增加:在缺詞處加一個漏字符號(),并在其下面寫出該加的詞。 刪除:把多余的詞用斜線(\)劃掉。 修改:在錯的詞下畫一橫線,并在該詞下面寫出修改后的詞。 注意:1.每處錯誤及其修改均僅限一詞; 2.只允許修改10處,多者(從第11處起)不計分。 It was cloudy day with little rain in the air. I stood at the roadside waiting for a taxi while suddenly I felt a voice beside me. It was a boy who was wearing poor cloth. I felt very disgusted(厭惡的)that I tried to pull myself away. The boy kept follow me shouting out “Big brother! Big brother!” and I didn’t answer him at all. I heard him call out again, which makes me angry. So I shouted at him that we had no money to spare. However, the boy said to me, “Brother, will you please to help me cross the road?” I held the boy’s hand firm and helped him cross the road. 笫二節 書面表達(滿分25分) 洪水、火山爆發、地震和海嘯等自然災害經常會不期而至。面對自然災害我們應該怎么做呢?請你根據以下要點提示以How to deal with natural disasters為題寫一篇英語短文。 1.自然災害造成的損失慘重; 2.我們應該掌握有關自然災害的知識并做好充分準備;當自然災害來臨時,要堅定信念,并團結一致,保持鎮靜,努力自救和幫助他人。 注意: 1.詞數100左右; 2.可以適當增加細節,以使行文連貫。 2020屆模擬01英語答案與解析 第一部分 聽力 1~5.【答案】CBBAA 6~10.【答案】BAACA 11~15.【答案】ACBAB 16~20.【答案】ABCAB 第二部分 閱讀理解 第一節 A篇【解題導語】本篇廣告類的說明文介紹了歐洲四個國家的首都即將舉辦的音樂節的相關信息。 21.【答案】D【解析】細節理解題。本題考查文章列舉的四個音樂節的時間長短,第二則說該節日持續一個星期,因此選D。 22.【答案】D【解析】細節理解題。根據題干信息,我們把答案定位在最后一則介紹。該則信息說,參加這個音樂節的人主要是當地人(60,000 mostly local people),因此選D。 23.【答案】A【解析】推理判斷題。根據題干的rock music判斷,第三、四則音樂節的介紹提到搖滾樂,舉辦地分別是德國柏林和法國的巴黎,因此選A。 B篇【解題導語】本文是一篇夾敘夾議的文章。想象力是人類創新的源泉,是創造的動力,會影響一個人的人生態度。“我”的童年就是一段充滿想象力的美好歲月。“我”現在的積極人生態度都得益于此。 24.【答案】C【解析】細節理解題。依據文章第一段可知,作者小時候曾經想象過自己未來成為宇航員、西部牛仔、足球運動員,由此可知,作者小時候對未來有著美好的憧憬,故選C項。 25.【答案】B【解析】詞義猜測題。由第一段可知,作者小時候想象自己從事某些職業,本句中的in my head說明作者在構思各種各樣的境況,故選B項。 26.【答案】C【解析】細節理解題。根據第三段中的…Indiana Jones, which cleaned up at the cinema at that time即可判斷,這是當時一部很熱門的影片。 27.【答案】A【解析】推理判斷題。在文章最后一段作者描述了自己小時候豐富的想象力對現在生活的影響,文中I enjoy sharing with and hearing about other people's stories表明,作者與他人相處很好,樂觀生活,這些都歸功于“我創造性的想象力”。故選項A作為本文的標題最為合適。 C篇【解題導語】要想健康生活,是先節食還是先運動呢?研究發現,兩者同時進行好。 28.【答案】D【解析】細節理解題。由第二段中的“…tends to discourage...new changes can also use up energy and motivation, and lead to a drop in compliance over time”可知,這些建議都有弊端,所以不能令人滿意。 29.【答案】C【解析】推理判斷題。由第四段中的Those that changed their fitness habits first significantly increased the amount of exercise they received daily compared to the other groups after four months.可知,這部分人在運動方面最先取得進步,對應的是第三組(見第三段)。 30.【答案】C【解析】推理判斷題。由第四段中的The researchers suspect that changes to diet are easier to make than changes to physical activity可推知,一開始先進行節食訓練的小組一年后在運動方面還不達標,可能原因是,運動比節食改變起來更費勁。其他選項妄加揣測。 31.【答案】A【解析】細節理解題。由末段首句的“pairing diet and exercise changes may help to overcome some of the barriers people face in adding more physical activity into their lives”可知答案。 D篇【解題導語】好奇心像一臺發動機,讓你在求知的路上突飛猛進、碩果累累。那么如何激發好奇心呢?請看科學家們怎么說吧。 32.【答案】A【解析】細節理解題。由第二段中的“The curious individual is motivated to obtain the missing information to reduce the feeling of deprivation.”可知,當人們意識到知識缺口時,就渴望彌補它。 33.【答案】D【解析】推理判斷題。根據第三段中的“so eager to get to the answer that we do not devote sufficient time to developing the question”可知,Daniel Willingham不贊同老師的做法。由此推知,學生厭學,老師責無旁貸。 34.【答案】C【解析】細節理解題。由第四段的George Loewenstein noted that curiosity requires some basic knowledge可知答案。即要對某事物產生好奇心,需要有相關知識。 35.【答案】C【解析】主旨大意題。由第一段中的But how does one generate(產生)curiosity, in oneself or others?可知,本文談好奇心是怎樣產生的問題,針對此問題,最后三段對如何激發好奇心給出了科學的建議。由此可知答案為C項。 第二節 【解題導語】語言學習的明顯目的是為了交流,但對我們了解異域文化、職業發展和語言提高也有很好的幫助作用。 36.【答案】D【解析】根據下文中的People in every country prefer it when tourists make an effort to speak the local language, even if all you can say in it is “hello” and “please”,可知應選D項,Your trip與tourists相呼應。 37.【答案】C【解析】根據段落開頭的Speaking a new language helps you to get to know another people and culture可知,學習另一種語言能夠開闊眼界。 38.【答案】B【解析】根據上文中的It is extremely difficult for a translation to be a perfect replica of the original可知,最好的方法是閱讀作者的原著。 39.【答案】E【解析】根據下文中的Schools and employers tend to prefer candidates who speak one or more foreign languages可知,講多種語言能夠增加市場機會。 40.【答案】G【解析】上文談到許多語言對英語的發展的作用,據此可知,通過學習那些語言能夠知道詞匯和語法結構的起源。 第三部分 英語知識運用 第一節 完形填空 【解題導語】本文是一篇神話故事,是有關Diwali(排燈節)的傳說,講述了一位老婦人用自己的智慧為全家人換來了永世的富裕和幸福。 41.【答案】C【解析】下文出現了the snake,由此可知答案。最小的兒子在回家的路上看見了一條蛇,并且把它撿起來帶回家。 42.【答案】A【解析】四個選項中符合邏輯的只有A項,母親認為這條蛇不能給全家當飯吃。 43.【答案】B【解析】第二段倒數第二句中出現了on the house是提示,覺得蛇沒有用便將其扔到房頂。 44.【答案】B【解析】根據介詞短語in a beautiful lake可知,女王正在池塘里洗澡。 45.【答案】D【解析】下文多次出現necklace一詞。有只老鷹在女王洗澡時叼走了項鏈。 46.【答案】A【解析】此處是說這只老鷹看見了房頂上的那條蛇。 47.【答案】C【解析】于是老鷹將項鏈丟下。其他選項很顯然不合邏輯。 48.【答案】D【解析】老鷹丟下項鏈帶走(take away)了那條死蛇。wake up喚醒。put aside撇開。look for尋找。 49.【答案】A【解析】前文提到老鷹將項鏈丟在了房頂,再結合下文可知,此處應該是說那位老婦人看到了房頂的項鏈。 50.【答案】A【解析】老鷹是趁女王不備時叼走了項鏈,因此可以理解為這個項鏈是被偷走的。 51.【答案】C【解析】所填詞修飾動詞want表示該動詞的程度。女王很想弄回項鏈。badly此處意為“極其”,而不是“糟糕地”。 52.【答案】B【解析】此處應該選擇表示時間概念的連接詞。When“當……的時候”。 53.【答案】C【解析】女王見到失而復得的項鏈當然是非常高興的。 54.【答案】B【解析】本句句首的連詞but是解題的關鍵。女王要給老婦人一大筆錢,但是她卻謝絕了。decline謝絕。如果選擇D項則應該將but改為and。 55.【答案】D【解析】所選動詞的賓語是oil lamps,再結合下文內容可知,老婦人請求女王在排燈節那天只允許她家點油燈。light點燃。 56.【答案】C【解析】是老婦人將項鏈還給她的,因此女王應該非常感激她。此處是so...that句型,表明了女王感激的程度,因為心存感激從而答應了老婦人的請求。 57.【答案】D【解析】空后面說的“看見一片漆黑”是原因,由此可知應該選擇D項。 58.【答案】A【解析】先是看到到處都是漆黑一片而失望,然后這個神突然看到了燈光,這個燈光一定是很美麗的,因為它把那個神吸引了過去。 59.【答案】B【解析】那個神快速徑直向有燈光的房子走去。make one’s way前往。push one’s way擠過去。feel one’s way摸索前行。fight one’s way奮力前行。 60.【答案】A【解析】此處應該選介詞in,in意為“處于……狀態”。in+名詞,意為“……地”相當于副詞。in prosperity興旺地。in happiness幸福地。 第二節 【解題導語】作者在一家專業的培訓公司工作,在一次采訪、征求問卷的過程中,有個人不但回應了問卷還送給作者一個蘋果,這讓作者感動不已。 61.【答案】to interview【解析】考查非謂語動詞。此處是不定式作表語。雖然動詞的ing形式也可以作表語,但是如果填interviewing則應該將and后的fill也加ing。 62.【答案】for【解析】考查介詞。for用來表目的,與三餐名詞連用。for lunch吃午飯。 63.【答案】beautiful【解析】考查詞性轉換。所填詞與形容詞selfless一起修飾名詞act,因此應該將beauty改為形容詞。 64.【答案】harder【解析】考查比較級。根據空前的much可知,此處應該用形容詞比較級。 65.【答案】which【解析】考查定語從句。which引導非限制性定語從句,在從句中作主語,指代逗號前整個句子的內容。填it雖然翻譯通順,但是句子缺少必要的連詞,應該在空前再加and。 66.【答案】sitting【解析】考查非謂語動詞。see sb. doing sth.看見某人正在干某事。 67.【答案】spoke【解析】考查時態。根據空前后動詞時態可知,該動詞應寫成過去式形式,表示過去發生的動作。 68.【答案】Suddenly【解析】考查副詞。應該寫成副詞形式,副詞修飾謂語動詞。 69.【答案】surprised【解析】考查形容詞。所填詞作表語,修飾主語I,因此應該寫成surprised“感到吃驚的”。surprising“令人吃驚的”,常用來修飾物。 70.【答案】a【解析】考查冠詞。此處用不定冠詞表泛指概念。雖然gift在前面出現過一次,但是此處不是特指那個名詞,而是對其進行補充說明,因此應該用不定冠詞。 第四部分 寫作 第一節 短文改錯 It was∧cloudy day with little rain in the air. I stood at the roadside waiting for a taxi a while suddenly I felt a voice beside me. It was a boy who was wearing poor cloth. I felt very when clothes so disgusted(厭惡的)that I tried to pull myself away. The boy kept follow me shouting out “Big following brother! Big brother!” and I didn’t answer him at all. I heard him call out again, which makes but made me angry. So I shouted at him that we had no money to spare. However, the boy said to me, I “Brother, will you please to help me cross the road?” I held the boy’s hand firm and helped firmly him cross the road. 第二節 書面表達 One possible version: How to deal with natural disasters Natural disasters, such as floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis, can happen at any time. They often cause a sad loss of life and damage. How should we deal with them? First of all, we should master rich knowledge about natural disasters and make adequate preparations for them. Secondly, when natural disasters really happen, we should have a firm belief and unite to fight against them. As the old saying goes, “Many hands make light work.” Moreover, we should keep calm and try to save ourselves and help others. Only in this way can we defeat natural disasters in the end. 英語(有聽力)新課標模擬01 第1頁

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  • ID:2-6828155 2020屆高三高考模擬試卷--語文02含答案

    高中語文/高考專區/模擬試題

    2020屆高三高考模擬試卷02 語文 測試范圍:學科內綜合。共150分,考試時間150分鐘 第Ⅰ卷(閱讀題 共70分) 一、現代文閱讀(一)(9分,每小題3分) 閱讀下面的文字,完成1~3題。 老子不是美學家,《老子》中也很少談文學藝術,但其中某些用語如“妙”“樸”“虛實”“有無”,某些命題如“大音希聲”“大巧若拙”“知白守黑”等,卻對后來的中國古典美學和藝術理論產生了極為深遠的影響,成為中國美學的重要范疇和藝術創作的基本法則。而其中最具根本性、最廣為人知的,則非“道法自然”莫屬。 “道法自然”語出《老子》第二十五章:“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然。”意思是人取法于地,地取法于天,天取法于道,而道則取法于自然。對老子所說的“自然”,今人容易產生兩個誤解:一是將“自然”理解為一個比道更高、更抽象的存在物,二是將“自然”等同于與人類社會相對應的自然界。但事實上,老子所說的“自然”并不是一個居于道之上的抽象存在,也不是那個外在于人類自身的客觀之物,而是本然,是自然而然。因此,“道法自然”的意思其實就是遵循事物自身發展的規律,它的另一種表述是“道常無為而無不為”。無為者,順其自然也,因其本然也。唯其如此,道才能在事物的發展變化中自然成就一切。 老子所說“自然”非客觀之物,但“道法自然”并不反對以自然造化為師。既然“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然”,那么天地萬物無疑是人取法的對象。問題的關鍵在于,所法者并非物之表象,并非天地、自然萬物的客觀形態,而是顯現于其中的某種意蘊。老子有關道的認識,得自他對自然萬物的觀察和思考。萬物各有其道,有其自身發生、發展和變化的規律,人道、地道、天道莫不如是,而皆以自然為依歸。 莊子進一步發展了老子的哲學思想,同時也把隱含在老子哲學中的潛在美學思想充分地展開了。在《莊子》一書中,“道法自然”的思想以寓言的形式得到了具體生動的闡述,如通過“東施效顰”“混沌開竅”等故事說明自然為美的道理,通過“伯樂治馬”“魯侯養鳥”等故事批評人為改變事物自然本性的做法。值得一提的是,莊子并不絕對否定人為的作用。固然,“殘樸以為器,工匠之罪也”,但如果是在順應自然規律的前提下從事人的創造,“既雕既琢,復歸于樸”,便能巧奪天工、妙造自然,臻于“刻雕眾形而不為巧”的境界。較之老子所說的“道法自然”,莊子上述見解對中國美學的影響更為直接。 在“道法自然”等觀念的影響下,古代中國孕育出了獨特的美學系統。與西方哲人認為藝術起源于對自然的模仿不同,中國古人并不贊成逼真地復制現實,而主張在作品中呈現自然昭示的意蘊。相應地,中國古代藝術家在觀察事物,進行創作時,其目的也不止于對物象外部形態的把握和描摹,而更著意于傳達物象背后的理趣。進而言之,中國古典藝術之所以重神貴虛,如書法講究神采為上,繪畫追求氣韻生動,詩歌推崇意在言外等,與老子“道法自然”的思想有著密切的關聯。 (選自張海明《中華美學關鍵詞:道法自然的要義》,有刪改) 1.下列關于“道法自然”的表述,不符合原文意思的一項是(3分)( ) A.“道法自然”是中國美學的重要范疇和藝術創作的基本法則,對中國古典美學和藝術理論影響深遠。 B.“道法自然”是《老子》中的一個命題,出自《老子》第二十五章,意思是遵循事物自身發展的規律。 C.“道法自然”并不反對以自然造化為師,只是強調效法顯現于天地萬物中的某種意蘊,而非其客觀形態。 D.“道法自然”觀念孕育出了古代中國獨特的美學系統,與中國古典藝術重神貴虛的理念有著密切的關聯。 2.下列理解和分析,不符合原文意思的一項是(3分) ( ) A.盡管《老子》中很少談論文學藝術,但其中的某些用語和命題卻隱含了深刻的美學思想。“道法自然”便是一個最典型的例子。 B.關于“道法自然”中“自然”,今人容易將其誤解為一個比道更高、更抽象的存在物,或是等同于與人類社會相對應的自然界。 C.通過對自然萬物的觀察和思考,老子獲得有關“道”的認識。他認為,萬物各有其道,有其自身運行規律,但都以自然為依歸。 D.《莊子》一書善于借助寓言的形式來闡述“道法自然”的思想,因而,與老子哲學思想相比,莊子的哲學思想更加具體生動。 3.根據原文內容,下列說法不正確的一項是(3分) ( ) A.“道法自然”還可以表述為“道常無為而無不為”;只有做到了“無為”,道才能在事物的發展變化中自然成就一切。 B.同為說明“道法自然”的道理,但“東施效顰”強調自然為美,而“魯侯養鳥”則強調不能人為改變事物自然本性。 C.莊子雖然提倡“道法自然”,但并不絕對否定人為的作用。他的自然與人為并重的思想更為直接地影響了中國美學。 D.西方哲人認為藝術源于對自然的模仿,故重在逼真;中國古人主張在作品中呈現自然昭示的意蘊,故重在有理趣。 二、現代文閱讀(二)(12分) 閱讀下面的文字,完成4~6題。 陳鶴琴:中國現代兒童教育之父(作者:柯小衛) 1920年12月26日凌晨,29歲的年輕教授陳鶴琴初為人父,他的兒子出生后2秒就開始大哭,延續了10分鐘,以后就是間接地哭,45分鐘后哭聲停止,兒子連續打了6次呵欠,漸漸睡著了……望著自己的“杰作”,初為人父的陳鶴琴來不及興奮,他拿著照相機,鏡頭對著襁褓中已經熟睡的嬰兒連連拍照,然后用鋼筆在本子上記錄下嬰兒從出生時一刻起的每一個反應……盡管時值嚴冬,窗外一片凋零,而陳鶴琴的心中卻是春光一片,幸福無比。他知道,自己正在做的工作在中國尚無先例,他與新生兒子一道正在完成一項具有開創性意義的實驗。他為兒子起了一個響亮的名字一鳴,不僅對于兒子寄予期望,同時預示著他的這項實驗將被載入史冊。 作為南京高等師范學校心理學教授,陳鶴琴對自己兒子成長發育過程作了長達808天的連續觀察,并用文字和拍照詳細記錄下來。他天天親自給兒子洗澡。他的實驗室就是他的家;他的妻子和母親是他的兩位最得力助手;他的兒子則是他的工作“對象”、“成果”與實驗中心。他將觀察、實驗結果分類記載,文字和照片積累了十余本。他的觀察與實驗工作,進行得既專心致志,又情趣盎然。他將自己的觀察、記錄與研究心得編成講義,在課堂上開設兒童心理學課程。有時,他還會將活潑可愛的兒子抱來課堂作示范,使單調的心理學課程生動有趣。 在中國,陳鶴琴是最早將觀察實驗方法運用于研究兒童身心發展規律之中的教育家。他所做文字、攝影記錄并闡明幼兒的動作、好奇心、模仿力、游戲、言語能力、記憶力、想象力和知識、能力、思維發展的特征及其意義,作為第一手資料,成為他日后對兒童心理、兒童教育、兒童游戲和玩具、道德教育、家庭教育等方面研究、論述的重要佐證。1925年,他的專著《兒童心理之研究》出版,這是中國第一本兒童心理學研究的專著。 陳鶴琴的另一本傳世名作《家庭教育》是《兒童心理學研究》姊妹書,書中記載了陳鶴琴對于自己兒子一鳴和女兒秀霞進行教育的心得。他以自己的觀察、實驗結果和親身經歷、體會為例,對兒童心理特點進行歸納,提出共計101條教導原則。他主張,家庭教育必須根據兒童生理與心理發展規律才能取得成效;要教育好兒童,首先要學會怎樣做父母。 他指出:“幼稚期(自生至7歲)是人生最重要的一個時期,什么習慣、言語、技能、思想、態度、情緒都要在此時期打下一個基礎,若基礎打得不穩固,那健全的人格就不容易形成了。”父母對小孩子有“從小教起”以形成健全人格的責任。成年人不僅應該以身作則,還要為兒童營造良好的環境,包括游戲的環境、勞動的環境、科學的環境、藝術的環境、閱讀的環境。 1923年,陳鶴琴在自己住宅的客廳里開辦了一所實驗幼稚園,自己親任園長,聘請了2位教師,招收了12名兒童,開展兒童教育實驗。他有三大計劃:建筑中國化的幼稚園園舍;改造西洋的玩具使之中國化;創造中國幼稚園的全部活動。他為這所幼稚園起的名字——南京鼓樓幼稚園。 兩年后,新園舍落成。陳鶴琴和他的學生、助手張宗麟等一道開展幼稚園課程、教材、教學法、設備和兒童習慣培養等實驗。幼稚園附近的草地、山坡和農村成為兒童們歡樂的課堂,也是陳鶴琴、張宗麟等人開展新課程研究與試驗的“實驗室”。他們總結、整理的實驗成果,成為若干年后我國首部《幼稚園課程暫行標準》中核心內容。當時,中國大多數幼稚園為外國傳教士所辦;中國幼兒教育的三種大病,即“外國病”、“花錢病”、“富貴病”使陶行知、陳鶴琴等新教育的倡導者們深有感慨。他們痛陳中國幼稚教育的封閉、停滯、落后現狀,大聲疾呼革除流弊,實行改革。將幼稚園課程逐漸從日本和歐美國家幼稚教育的模式中解放出來,創造符合中國兒童特點和國情的教育和課程,是他們希望達到的目標。 1926年2月,陳鶴琴與張宗麟發表《我們的主張》一文,提出適合中國國情和幼兒心理、教育原理、社會現狀的15條主張,成為中國現代幼兒園教育的最早綱領與宣言。 陳鶴琴是中國兒童心理學、家庭教育和幼兒園的開創者,他被譽為“中國現代兒童教育之父”和二十世紀中國最杰出的教育家。 (選自《光明網》2016年1月27日,有刪改) 【相關鏈接】 ①陳鶴琴先生是民國時期著名的兒童教育家,與陶行知、晏陽初、黃炎培并稱中國教育界有四位圣人,他被譽為“兒童教育的圣人”。 (新華網) ②他確實是一個很真誠的人,一個很淳樸的人,一個熱情洋溢的人。只有這樣一個人才能真正熱愛兒童,兒童也才能喜歡他。 (潘菽 (?http:?/??/?baike.baidu.com?/?view?/?87328.htm" \t "http:?/??/?baike.baidu.com?/?_blank?)) 4.下列對文章內容理解,正確的一項是(3分) ( ) A.初為人父的陳鶴琴并不興奮,因為他還要把襁褓中熟睡的嬰兒不斷拍照,并把他的成長過程記錄下來。 B.開篇描寫陳鶴琴認真觀察記錄兒子的反應,表現出一位學者的嚴謹和細致,也寫出他對正在完成的實驗的熱情和興奮。 C.陳鶴五與他的學生一起開展幼稚園的各種實驗,最終他們的實驗成果成為我國首部《我國幼稚園課程暫行標準》。 D.中國幼稚園為外國傳教士所辦并且存在著三種大病,即“外國病”、“花錢病”、“富貴病”,使陶行知、陳鶴琴深有感慨。 5.下列對材料有關內容的分析和概括,最恰當的兩項是(4分) ( ) A.首段中陳鶴琴心中“春光一片,幸福無比”,是因為他知道,自己正在做的工作在中國尚無先例,他與新生兒子一道正在完成一項具有開創性意義的實驗。 B.在《家庭教育》一書中,陳鶴琴記載了對兒子一鳴和女兒秀霞進行教育的心得,對兒童心理特點進行歸納,提出101條教導原則,對兒童教育有指導價值。 C.陳鶴琴指出幼稚期是人生最重要的一個時期,習慣、言語、技能、態度、情緒都要在此時期打下一個基礎,若基礎打得不穩固,健全的人格就無法形成。 D.陶行知、陳鶴琴等新教育的倡導者們呼吁改革,是因為當時中國多數幼稚園為外國傳教士所辦,而他們希望創造符合中國兒童特點和國情的教育和課程。 E.陳鶴琴指出,成年人不僅應該以身作則,還要為兒童營造良好的環境。如想讓兒童養成閱讀的習慣,成年人也應當堅持閱讀,在家中營造良好的閱讀氛圍。 6.被譽為“中國現代兒童教育之父”的陳鶴琴為兒童教育研究做出了哪些貢獻?(5分) 三、現代文閱讀(三)(14分) 閱讀下面的文字,完成7~9題。 大嫂(作者:陽媚) “妹,跟你們說,媽這個病我們一個字不能透露給她,拿藥時看看說明,明顯的就撕去。”病房外,大嫂淚眼朦朧,抹了一把淚,又特意囑咐我,“你也擦擦,別讓媽看出來。” 一個月前,六十六歲的媽媽查出了胃癌,醫生說動手術會花很多錢,問我們是否同意做。大嫂圓眼一瞪,說:“就是花再多的錢我們也要做。”媽有農保,農保規定在省醫院報銷的比例不是太高,面對十多萬手術費,我們懵了。 大嫂很鎮靜:“海軍,你今天就回家,把準備買車的錢拿來。再告訴老二也準備點錢,眼看著做了手術要化療。妹,你留下幫我照顧媽。”大嫂話音很低,怕驚醒睡夢中的媽。 “大嫂,我……”眼淚再次迷蒙了我的眼睛。 去年,女兒考上了高中,為了就近上學,我們決定買房。身為工薪階層,面對首付三十多萬,我和老公犯起了愁。大嫂得知后,立馬讓大哥給送來十一萬,解了我們燃眉之急。 連夜回老家的大哥,在第二天傍晚返回了濟南醫院。 “咋沒告訴老二媽要手術?”大嫂看著疲憊的大哥,眼里裝滿了心疼。 大哥把銀行卡遞到大嫂手里,說:“老二家說錢都炒股了,手頭沒錢,工作抽不開身,不能來。” “我找二哥,兩個人咋一點不自覺。”我拿出手機就要打。 “算了吧,他們都忙。”大嫂一把按住了我。 媽醒了,定是聽到了我們的對話,她轉頭看看大嫂和大哥,又看看我,道:“嫚,你去跟醫生說,我不動手術。我覺得沒啥病,回老家醫院打打吊瓶就行了。” “媽,你說啥呢。醫生說了,你就是胃潰瘍,說動手術很快就好了。”大嫂把媽額頭的一縷白發掖到耳后,撫摸著媽長了老年斑的手,“媽,你現在是病人哦,得聽醫生的話。別怕,錢也不多。” 媽看了一眼大嫂,說:“我知道你哄我。去年在人民醫院,我闌尾炎,動手術。問花了多少錢,你說不到一千。今春兒,南街上你二大爺也闌尾炎動手術,聽說花了小四千啊。這濟南大醫院,做個手術萬八千能夠?回去吧,我沒病,別花冤枉錢。” 大嫂嘿嘿一笑:“媽,就知道你怕花錢,這次真用不了幾個錢。你不信我,一會醫生來了你問問醫生好不好?”大嫂細聲細氣地安撫著媽,生怕媽上火。 媽的這次手術非常成功,化療按照大嫂的意見全部用好藥。大嫂說了,不能讓媽掉頭發,那樣媽再不識字也會知道自己不是好病。我們緊巴一點,讓媽恢復好,媽多活一天,我們就多一天有媽的日子。 手術兩周后,媽看著大嫂憔悴樣,心疼了,背著大嫂對我說:“嫚,你打電話給你二嫂,讓她來替替你大嫂。就說我說的。”我打了,二嫂沒來,說工作實在脫不開身,等周日再來濟南看看。 一個月后,大嫂找單位同事開著車把康復中的媽接回了家。 “老嫂子,你真有福。”來家里看望媽的阿姨們,看到對媽細心照顧的大嫂,個頂個羨慕,她們打心眼里希望兒子將來也能攤上這樣一個好媳婦。這時媽的眼睛瞇成一條縫,臉上寫滿了